自组织神经网络算法-SOM


相比于bp神经网络算法,som相对来说比较容易理解。自组织神经网络,是一种用于聚类的神经网络算法,从名字便可以看出,这是一种无监督式的算法,意味着,它不需要任何训练样本,便可以直接对输入样本根据其特征 分类,将具有相似特征的划分为一类。

1 算法结构

som算法是由两层网络组成,输入层与输出层(也叫作竞争层),大致示意图如下:

som_layers

2 示例

下面我会给出一个例子来讲解som算法的原理。

现在我有8个输入样本,每个输入样本由两个特征值组成(x,y),表示在二维坐标系(横为x,纵为y)上如下图所示:

som_inputs

要求使用som算法将上图中的输入节点划分为两类。

解:如图所示:凭肉眼观察,8个输入样本很明显已经分为了粉红与淡蓝两类,但题意要求使用som算法来搞。所以思路如下:

没有太高深的数学计算,但这就是som算法的思路,我做了一个简单的动画来描述上面的计算过程。

两个黑色的节点即为输出节点,是随机生成的,随着算法的运行,你会发现,两个节点分别移动向两个类别之中(这里步长为0.15)。

结合着我贴出的python源代码,更加方便去理解这种算法。

解答完毕!

相信分析完这篇教程,som算法就没什么难的了。

这篇教程搞懂之后,努力方向应为som的完善算法sofm(自组织特征映射神经网络),这种算法相比于som算法,有两处不同:

1 . 步长的衰变方式。

2 . 每次输出层的获胜节点确定之后,不仅仅该获胜节点要调整自身特征值,获胜节点周围相近的节点也要做相应的调整,调整幅度的大小要视距离获胜节点的远近。

留给课下研究好了。

1,928 Comments

  1. 有一点有一些疑问
    计算distance那里,我对som的理解应该对每一个输入input点,计算它和所有输出神经元node点的距离,然后得到一个神经元winner
    calc_distance()的双for循环的里外层是不是要调换一下

    • 你的理解很正确。我的代码也是对的。
      calc_distance()这个函数的作用是计算”某一个”input节点与所有输出节点的距离。内嵌在里面的那个for,是在遍历这个 input节点(x,y)的x和y坐标而已。
      不要忽视了train()函数里的那个for循环哦~这个才是遍历”每一个”输入input点.

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    您好,有一点疑问,在输出节点初始化语句中即self.output_layer[i].append(random.randint(0,400))若改成self.output_layer[i].append(random.uniform(0,1))且类别category =3
    分别运行得出结果会发现两次结果中有两类输出的类中心完全一致,但是有一类就不一样,请问是为什么呢?

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